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Author: Tatiana V. Chernukha
Information about the author:

Tatiana V. Chernukha, PhD in Philology, Assistant Professor, Department of Modern Languages and Communication of National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninskiy Prospekt 4, bld. 1, 119049 Moscow, Russia.

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For citation:

Chernukha, T.V. “Influence of Trade Relations of Novgorod and Hansea Union on the Development of Enlightenment in Russia at the Turn of the 14th–15th Centuries (on the Example of Educational Activities of St. Gennady of Novgorod).” Germenevtika dervnerusskoi literatury [Hermeneutics of Old Russian Literature]. Issue 22. Ed.-in-chief O.A. Tufanova. Moscow, IWL RAS Publ., 2023, pp. 515–526. (In Russian) https://doi.org/10.22455/HORL.1607-6192-2023-22-515-526 

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22455/HORL.1607-6192-2023-22-515-526
UDC: 821.161.1.0
Keywords: trade relations, education, mutual influence of cultures.
Date of publication: 20.09.2023


The article examines the influence of trade relations between Novgorod and Hanseatic League, the main intermediary in trade connections between Central, Eastern and Northern Europe, on the development of education in Russia at the turn of the 14th–15th centuries on the example of educational activity of St. Gennady of Novgorod. Trade relations between Novgorod and Hanseatic League contributed to the development of similar forms of trade affairs, being an integral part of intercultural communication, which was reflected in customs, manners and language. Economic needs contributed to the development of education and spirituality. Novgorod, the largest center of chronicle writing in Old Russia, was also a spiritual center. Novgorod lords collected old manuscripts, mostly of a liturgical plan. However, a special place is occupied by the activities of Russians outstanding enlightener of the 15th century St. Gennady of Novgorod, who not only did a lot to enlighten his flock, but for the first time collected all the books of Holy Scripture into a single code and in 1499 published the so-called Gennadiev Bible in manuscript form. Novgorod’s communication ties with Hanseatic League made it possible to attract the latest for the time reference books, specialists to create the Bible Code of 1499, which is the greatest achievement of medieval enlightenment. Gennadiev Bible is a sign of a high spiritual culture that has preserved its own biblical traditions and borrowings from other traditions of Holy Scripture translations. The Bible’s appearance at the end of the 15th century is a vivid evidence of fact that our country was in the distant era in bosom of a common European Christian civilization.


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